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Upper surface   /ˈəpər sˈərfəs/   Listen
Upper surface

noun
1.
The side that is uppermost.






WordNet 3.0 © 2010 Princeton University








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"Upper surface" Quotes from Famous Books



... time afterward a large number of airships made their appearance at the upper surface of the clouds, moving to and fro, and although, with our glasses, we could only make out the general form of the ships, without being able to discern the Martians upon them, yet we had not the least doubt but they were sweeping the sky in every direction in order to determine ...
— Edison's Conquest of Mars • Garrett Putnam Serviss

... in combination with the board or tablet, A, the bar, B, provided with the scouring pad, g, and pivoted to such board, and operating with its upper surface, or upon an inclined bed formed thereon, essentially as ...
— Scientific American, Vol. 17, No. 26 December 28, 1867 • Various

... was contrived from the wooden sides to my bed. I secured them side by side to give a flat surface 6 feet long by 5 feet wide. Over the upper surface I stretched and tacked down a sheet to form the cloth. I bought a broomstick and with the assistance of the camp carpenter shaved it down to form a passable cue, tipping the end with a small piece of leather cut from my boot. The table was rigged up in the open air, boxes and barrels serving as ...
— Sixteen Months in Four German Prisons - Wesel, Sennelager, Klingelputz, Ruhleben • Henry Charles Mahoney

... the shoots until he had both hands full, my guide now bent down, and rubbed the resin over both the soles and upper surface of his coarse brogans. He then advanced to where I stood, stooped down again, and treated my ...
— The Quadroon - Adventures in the Far West • Mayne Reid

... and many inscriptions to this effect "Erodiana Regina," "Omnia praetereunt," etc. A dirty, one-eyed fellow keeps the place. In my presence he swept the frescos over with a scratchy broom, flaying their upper surface in profound unconsciousness of mischief. The armor of the executioner has had its steel colors almost rubbed off by this infernal process. Damp and cobwebs are ...
— New Italian sketches • John Addington Symonds

... below. In this manner the low ground of the rich but dreary Messaria has been formed through the decay and denudation of the higher levels, and the process will continue until the present table-topped hills shall be entirely washed away. The stone of the upper surface, which forms a hard crust to the friable strata beneath, is in many places merely the roof of caverns which have been hollowed out by the action of water ...
— Cyprus, as I Saw it in 1879 • Sir Samuel W. Baker

... long inheritance from the ancient progenitor of the genus—are found to resist variation, or to reappear if lost, more persistently than the characters which are confined to the separate species. Now, in the genus Lepus, a large majority of the species have their ears and the upper surface of the tail tinted black; but the persistence of these marks is best seen in those species which in winter become white: thus, in Scotland the L. variabilis (4/19. G.R. Waterhouse 'Natural History of Mammalia: ...
— The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication - Volume I • Charles Darwin

... upper surface is often tastefully ornamented with patterns of incised or excavated lines which are arranged in groups, in vertical or oblique positions, or encircle the vessel parallel with the border. One specimen has a row of stamped circles, made by a reed or ...
— Illustrated Catalogue of a Portion of the Collections Made During the Field Season of 1881 • William H. Holmes

... red brown. Leaves spirally arranged but brought by the twisting of the leafstalk into two horizontal rows on opposite sides of the twig, about 1/2 an inch long, yellow green when young, becoming at maturity dark shining green on the upper surface, white-banded along the midrib beneath, flat, linear, smooth, occasionally minutely toothed, especially in the upper half; apex obtuse; base obtuse; leafstalk slender, short but distinct, resting ...
— Handbook of the Trees of New England • Lorin Low Dame

... of this is to distribute the load fore and aft over the envelope. These bands, particularly at the after end of the ship, follow a curved path, so that they become more nearly vertical as they approach the upper surface of the envelope. This has the effect of bringing the vertical load on the top of the envelope; but a greater portion of the compressive force comes on the lower half, where it helps to resist the bending ...
— British Airships, Past, Present, and Future • George Whale

... Another tube, h, opens into the annular chamber between the cylinders, and it has a funnel-shaped mouth at the outer end, through which the chamber may be filled, while a screw in the inside allows a handle, fig. 4 (in section), to have its end, i, screwed in. A small hole in the upper surface is closed by a little cork, which will be expelled if the pressure within is so high as to require escape by this safety-valve. The hole may be in any part of the annular cover (but is not shown in the sketch), and in such case the hole shown in ...
— The Voyage Alone in the Yawl "Rob Roy" • John MacGregor

... been built against a smooth surface. The western wall of this room shows clearly that in the construction of the building the floor beams were laid on the tops of the walls, and that the intervening spaces were filled with small lumps of material up to a level with or a little above the upper surface of the beams, the regular construction with large ...
— Casa Grande Ruin • Cosmos Mindeleff

... one or more magnetic needles attached to a circular card which turns freely on the point of a steel cone or floats on a liquid. The upper surface of the card is divided into the 32 points of the ...
— Boys' Book of Model Boats • Raymond Francis Yates

... light glinted on the giant pointed hammer, operated from beyond the outer layer of metal. It rose and fell at even intervals, through the rent in the upper surface. The ram had already crushed through two thicknesses of metal, and was battering at ...
— Wanted—7 Fearless Engineers! • Warner Van Lorne

... of the in-rushing water was to cool the upper surface of the boiling lava and convert it into a thick hard solid crust at the mouth of the great vent. In this condition the volcano resembled a boiler with all points of egress closed and the safety-valve shut down! Oceans of molten lava creating expansive gases below; no outlet possible underneath, ...
— Blown to Bits - or, The Lonely Man of Rakata • Robert Michael Ballantyne

... faded relics of the erstwhile gloriously rampant jungle. In all this the lawyer cane is the most aggressive and hostile. Not only are there prickles on the 10-feet thongs, but the leaves and leaf-sheaths are thickly beset. In one species the 6-feet-long leaves bear upon the margins and upper surface long, thin, needle-like points, black and glossy, and attaining a length Of 3 inches; the main rib bears stout re-curved prickles, while the sheaths which envelop the cane are densely covered with dark brown or black points 1 ...
— The Confessions of a Beachcomber • E J Banfield

... to be used; the judicious management of which is one of the most important parts of the process of malting, and should be paid particular attention to. One watering, well applied, will, in most cases, answer the purpose. Two thirds of the whole quantity of water should be given to the upper surface of the couch, then turn it, and give the remaining third of the water to the couch when turned. The whole quantity of water to be used for sixty bushels of American spring barley, may be averaged at fifty-four gallons; this ...
— The American Practical Brewer and Tanner • Joseph Coppinger

... is the wharf, which has attached to it the sleeve, m, and which is situated loosely in the space between the spindle and the footstep, e. Above the wharf the spindle is hexagonal in shape, and to this part is attached the friction plate, a. Between the latter and the upper surface of the wharf a cloth or felt washer is inserted, to act as a brake. The footstep, e, is filled with oil, in which run the foot of the spindle and the sleeve m, the latter turning upon a steel ring ...
— Scientific American Supplement, No. 344, August 5, 1882 • Various

... und Bildungen in Unter- und Mittel-Italien." Braunschweig, 1841.) describes having seen the same actual thing forming within the crater of Vesuvius. In such cases what outline do you give to the upper surface of the lava in the dike connecting them? Surely it would be very irregular and would send up irregular cones or columns as in my above ...
— More Letters of Charles Darwin Volume II - Volume II (of II) • Charles Darwin

... cells of the midrib. The cells contain a number of oil-bodies the function of which is imperfectly understood. The growth of the thallus proceeds by the regular segmentation of a single apical cell. The sexual organs are borne on the upper surface, and both antheridia and archegonia occur on the same branch (fig. 3, A). The antheridia (an) are scattered over the middle region of the thallus, and each is surrounded by a tubular upgrowth from ...
— Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3 - "Brescia" to "Bulgaria" • Various

... smaller debris in copious showers down the precipice, and by cleverly rolling some comparatively small boulders down upon those larger ones which lay out of reach, he succeeded in dislodging many of them. This accomplished, he proceeded to fix the stake on the upper surface ...
— Rivers of Ice • R.M. Ballantyne

... directions, many small flat-topped elevations, varying in height from 50 to 300 feet, and almost invariably exhibiting precipitous banks. These elevations are composed almost wholly of a chalky substance, coated over on the upper surface by stones, or a sandy soil, and present the appearance of having formed a table land that has been washed to pieces by the violent action of water, and of which these fragments now only remain. Upon forcing a way through this dreary region, in three different directions, I found that the ...
— Journals Of Expeditions Of Discovery Into Central • Edward John Eyre

... give a rapid sketch of her. The abdomen, which always curls up so as to join the back, spreads paddle wise and twists into a crook. Pointed scales, a sort of foliaceous expansions arranged in three rows, cover the lower surface, which becomes the upper surface because of the crook aforesaid. The scaly crook is propped on four long, thin stilts, on four legs armed with knee-pieces, that is to say, carrying at the end of the thigh, where it joins the shin, a curved, projecting blade not unlike that ...
— The Wonders of Instinct • J. H. Fabre

... making no contact with the posts. In such a case, it would be impossible to send a charging current through the battery. Acetic acid from improperly treated separators, and organic matter introduced by the use of impure water in refilling will attack the lead of the plates, especially at the upper surface of the electrolyte, and may dissolve all the plate lugs from the connecting straps ...
— The Automobile Storage Battery - Its Care And Repair • O. A. Witte

... much more simple than that of the same sense in those animals which live entirely in the air; but there is no doubt that they have the adaptation suitable to their condition. In some genera, as in the rays, the external orifice or ear is very small, and is placed in the upper surface of the head; whilst in others there is no visible external orifice whatever. However perfect the sight of fishes may be, experience has shown that this sense is of much less use to them than that of ...
— The Book of Household Management • Mrs. Isabella Beeton

... Examination.—The upper surface of the tongue of a brownish yellow, full of holes and rough. At the posterior part, in place of the larger papillae, were ulcers and cavities. The posterior nares and pharynx were covered with holes, formed by ulceration, ...
— North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1826 • Various

... of field ice. There, at all events, was a refuge of a sort—something that would serve the purpose of a raft, and with a few vigorous strokes he was alongside it. It was a great slab of field ice, its flat upper surface not more than six inches above water; and after a tremendous struggle Dick not only got upon the slab himself but also contrived to drag his companion up also. Their combined weight seemed to have very little effect upon the stability of the mass, merely depressing the ...
— In Search of El Dorado • Harry Collingwood

... mamma, see," pointing to the upper surface and sides of the nosegay, facetiously termed. At length sleep overtook him, lying under the table side by side with the gaily-painted sled, one chubby hand grasping the forward rung. The next day the sled had lost its charms, for ...
— Hubert's Wife - A Story for You • Minnie Mary Lee

... and dimensions, ornamented externally by a large net-work of interlaced cords moulded in the lead. The cist of William de Warenne measures 2 feet 11 inches long, by 12-1/2 inches broad, and is 8 inches deep, all the angles being squared, and the flat loose cover lapping an inch over. On the upper surface at one end is inscribed in very legible characters 'WillelMus.' The cist of the princess his wife is 2 inches shorter and 1 inch deeper, and the word 'Gvndrada' is very distinctly inscribed on the cover. It is worth remarking ...
— Seaward Sussex - The South Downs from End to End • Edric Holmes

... cause of the mad panic was a slowly moving white curtain of mist. It was flowing over the marsh, moving with apparent deliberation, but, as Tommy saw, actually very swiftly. It shimmered and quivered and moved onward steadily. Its upper surface gleamed with elusive prismatic colors. It had blotted out the horizon and the Golden City, ...
— Astounding Stories of Super-Science January 1931 • Various

... many lateral ravines depressed below the upper surface of the main plateau, and though the light-rays from the city, directed horizontally, would sweep their tops, we found we could traverse many of them a considerable distance in safety. But from the bottoms of ...
— The Fire People • Ray Cummings

... soil, that had as it were been raised into small hillocks, and on these, rounded particles, or stools, if I may so call them, of gypsum rested, oval or round, but varying in diameter from three to ten inches or more. These stools were perfectly flat and transparent, the upper surface smooth, but in the centre of the under surface a pointed projection, like that in a bull's eye in window glass was buried in the ground, as if the gypsum was in process ...
— Expedition into Central Australia • Charles Sturt

... little stiffer than you would for pancakes; beat it up well, and take care it is not lumpy; put a dish under the meat, and let the drippings drop into it till it is quite hot and well greased; then pour in the batter;—when the upper surface is brown and set, turn it, that both sides may be brown alike: if you wish it to cut firm, and the pudding an inch thick, it will take two hours at ...
— The Cook's Oracle; and Housekeeper's Manual • William Kitchiner

... was flowing from one side of her chest, and this recurred every Friday. On each Thursday morning an oval surface about one inch in length on the back of each hand became pink in color and smooth, whilst a similar oval surface on the palm of each hand became of the same hue, and on the upper surface of each foot a pinkish-white square appeared. Examined under a magnifying glass, the epidermis appeared at first without solution of continuity and delicate. About noon on Thursday a vesicle formed on the pink surfaces containing ...
— Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine • George M. Gould

... short time, however, the structure is become more complex, the parts more distinct, the spinal marrow better marked; it is now the brain of a reptile. The change continues; by a singular motion, certain parts (corpora quadragemina), which had hitherto appeared on the upper surface, now pass towards the lower; the former is their permanent situation in fishes and reptiles, the latter in birds and mammalia. This is another advance in the scale, but more remains yet to be done. The complication ...
— A Theory of Creation: A Review of 'Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation' • Francis Bowen

... and direction of this short-sighted individual's movements underwent a sudden and complete change, so that to those who stood around it appeared as though he were making a well-directed endeavour to penetrate through the upper surface of the earth. This unexpected display had the effect of removing the gravity of even the most aged and severe-minded persons present, and for the space of some moments the behaviour and positions of those who stood around were such that they were quite unable ...
— The Wallet of Kai Lung • Ernest Bramah

... percolate through the bed; and, as they rise to the surface, by the laws of capillary attraction, they carry with them these salts in solution. As they reach the surface in dry weather, they give off by evaporation pure water; and the salts, which they held in solution, remain behind in the upper surface. The capillary action goes on; and as the pure water is taken off in the atmosphere in vapour, other water impregnated with more salts comes up to supply its place; and the salts near the surface either accumulate or are supplied to the roots of the ...
— A Journey through the Kingdom of Oude, Volumes I & II • William Sleeman

... leaving my friendly Alpenstock planted in the snow, and of seating myself on that frail sledge. Perhaps I ought to describe it here. A board, about six feet long by one foot broad, with sheet-iron nailed beneath it, and curved upwards in front; on its upper surface a couple of battens were fixed, one quite at the foremost end, and one half-way. That was F——'s new patent sledge, warranted to go faster down an incline than any other conveyance on the surface of the earth. I was the wretched ...
— Station Amusements • Lady Barker

... lay far enough from the cliff to be clear of the shadow. The sun shone on its brown weed-clad sides, glistened on black clusters of mussels, glowed on the red seams of the rock where the iron cropped out, and baked the black basalt of the upper surface. The spirits of the party revived when they landed. Una's gaiety ...
— The Northern Iron - 1907 • George A. Birmingham

... extended and separated fingers rapidly with a slapping sound astraddle the extended fore and second fingers of the left hand. The sound is produced by the palm of the right hand which comes in contact with the upper surface of the left. ...
— Sign Language Among North American Indians Compared With That Among Other Peoples And Deaf-Mutes • Garrick Mallery

... with beneath the tongue, lying in the middle line, between the genio-glossi (genio-hyoglossi), and on the upper surface of the mylo-hyoid muscles. It may be noticed soon after birth, or may only attract attention during adult life. The cyst usually projects under the chin, forming a soft swelling of putty-like consistence, ...
— Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities—Head—Neck. Sixth Edition. • Alexander Miles

... form of the pleural sacs as they surround the lungs and line the inner surfaces of the chest (other parts removed). A, A'. Places occupied by the lungs. B, B'. Slight space within the pleural sacs containing the pleural secretion, a, a'. Outer layer of pleura and lining of chest walls and upper surface of diaphragm. b, b'. Inner layer of pleura and outer lining of lungs. C. Space occupied by the ...
— Physiology and Hygiene for Secondary Schools • Francis M. Walters, A.M.

... for the first time there came to him remembrance of Hunt's rapid injunction, given him in the hurly-burly of escape when no thoughts could impress the upper surface of his mind save those of the immediate moment. "If you're trapped, call Plaza nine-double-o-one ...
— Children of the Whirlwind • Leroy Scott

... front. The wings were fixed at a considerable dihedral angle, and the engine was a twenty-four horse-power Antoinette. In his first trial, which took place at Bagatelle on the 23rd of July 1906, Santos Dumont attached a spindle-shaped balloon to the upper surface of the machine, to help it into the air. The combination of the two modes he soon found to be impossible; with the balloon attached to it the machine could not develop speed enough to support itself in the air. His next step was to practise the machine ...
— The War in the Air; Vol. 1 - The Part played in the Great War by the Royal Air Force • Walter Raleigh

... sides are placed at a slight angle to one another in such a way that the west end is broader than the east. In a good example of this at Keamcorravooly, County Cork, there are two large capstones and the walls consist of double rows of slabs, the outer being still beneath the cover-slabs. On the upper surface of the covers are several small cup-shaped hollows, some of which at ...
— Rough Stone Monuments and Their Builders • T. Eric Peet

... thickly bandaged, but the blood was oozing through and forming a pool on the table. When the bandage was removed, Captain Dowden examined the limb, but no injury was visible on the upper surface. I grasped the foot—it was blue and cold. I raised it, so that the surgeon could look at the under-surface of the leg. As I did so, the calf gave way in the middle. He told me angrily to pull harder. I pulled until the leg was taut again. The muscles and the sinews ...
— Combed Out • Fritz August Voigt

... its present level, left the two parallel Gjas, or chasms, which form its lateral boundaries, to mark the limits of the disruption; or else, while the pith or marrow of the lava was still in a fluid state, its upper surface became solid, and formed a roof beneath which the molten stream flowed on to lower levels, leaving a vast cavern into which the upper crust subsequently plumped down. [Footnote: I feel it is very ...
— Letters From High Latitudes • The Marquess of Dufferin (Lord Dufferin)

... were captured, approaching in shape to the green snake of the Coromandel Coast. Under surface throughout bright gamboge colour; upper surface throughout, excepting about a span or less of the back of the neck, bright ochraceous brown. The space above alluded to is in one faintly, in the other strongly variegated with black and ...
— Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries • William Griffith

... Minor, 1879. A bushy shrub of vigorous habit, with trifoliolate and petiolate leaves of a pale green colour, thick and tough, and brightly polished on the upper surface. Flowers bright yellow, the calyx being helmet-shaped and rusty-red. It is a beautiful but uncommon shrub, and succeeds very well in chalky or ...
— Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs • A. D. Webster

... a metal or alloy in bar or ingot: clean the upper surface of the bar, and bore through the bar. Use the borings. If the ingot or bar is small, cut it through and file the section. Filings must be freed from fragments of the file by means of a magnet; and from oil, if any be present, by washing with a suitable solvent.[1] Where ...
— A Textbook of Assaying: For the Use of Those Connected with Mines. • Cornelius Beringer and John Jacob Beringer

... is made out of two pieces of bamboo,[3] dried over the fire into the desired shape, and is held together by two slender strips of rattan running around and stitched to the edges of the headpiece proper. These pieces project backward and overlap to form the tail of the hat. The upper surface of the whole hat is then painted with beeswax. The sustaining pieces of rattan around the rim and the under surface of the back part receive a heavy coating of this same material mixed with pot black. Odd tracings and dottings of beeswax and soot or of the juice of ...
— The Manbos of Mindano - Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume XXIII, First Memoir • John M. Garvan

... by a certain maturity in the organism itself, partly no doubt by the trend of external conditions, the plasmodium no longer as before evades the light, but pushes to the surface, and appears usually in some elevated or exposed position, the upper side of the log, the top of the stump, the upper surface of its habitat, whatever that may be; or even leaves its nutrient base entirely and finds lodging on some neighboring object. In such emergency the stems and leaves of flowering plants are often made to serve, and even fruits and flowers afford convenient resting places. The object now ...
— The North American Slime-Moulds • Thomas H. (Thomas Huston) MacBride

... intervals, the occasional gulfs of darkness, were akin to those through which he had fled from the Council House. He distinguished an orderly file of red figures marching across an open space between files of men in black, and realised before Ostrog spoke that he was looking down on the upper surface of latter-day London. The overnight snows had gone. He judged that this mirror was some modern replacement of the camera obscura, but that matter was not explained to him. He saw that though the file of red figures was trotting from left to right, yet they were passing ...
— The Sleeper Awakes - A Revised Edition of When the Sleeper Wakes • H.G. Wells

... Instinctively he began to push at it, pressing it this way and that, to discover, if possible, any spring or other means whereby it might be made to turn or lift up. As he did so, his fingers unconsciously pressed upon the large pearl at the top. In a moment the upper surface of the cross slid to one side, disclosing a tiny shallow cavity beneath it, some quarter of an inch in either direction, and no deeper than the thickness of a piece of cardboard. Within this lay a bit of ...
— The Ivory Snuff Box • Arnold Fredericks

... oven, should be carefully turned about so that it may brown equally, and when it has been in half the time you intend to give it, or when the upper surface is well browned, turn it over. When it comes out of the oven put it on a hot dish, then carefully pour off the fat by holding the corner of the meat pan over your dripping-pan, and very gently allowing the fat to run off; do not shake it; when you see ...
— Culture and Cooking - Art in the Kitchen • Catherine Owen

... the cells of Osmia leucomelana "are formed of mud, and each cell is built separately. The female bee, having deposited a small pellet of mud in a sheltered spot between some tufts of grass, immediately begins to excavate a small cavity in its upper surface, scraping the mud away from the centre towards the margin by means of her jaws. A small, shallow mud-cup is thus produced. It is rough and uneven on the outer surface, but beautifully smooth on the inner. On witnessing thus much of the work performed, I was struck with three points: first, ...
— Our Common Insects - A Popular Account of the Insects of Our Fields, Forests, - Gardens and Houses • Alpheus Spring Packard

... formed by divisions rather more than half the diameter of the leaf; they are slightly distant, broadly lance-shaped, waved at the edges, toothed near the ends, the teeth being somewhat spiny; the substance is very stout and leather-like to the touch; the upper surface is a dark shining bronzy-green, beautifully netted or veined; the under surface is a pale green, and richly ornamented by the risen mid-ribs and nerves of the whole leaf; the leaf-stalks are thick, round, bending downwards, and 6in. to 18in. long, springing ...
— Hardy Perennials and Old Fashioned Flowers - Describing the Most Desirable Plants, for Borders, - Rockeries, and Shrubberies. • John Wood

... remarked, "that the upper surface of these springs is situated at a very great height above—as we may fairly infer from the ...
— A Journey to the Centre of the Earth • Jules Verne

... which cannot of course feel, and cannot consciously perform, any movement. Yet if a drop of acid be placed on the lower surface of the thigh of a frog in this state, it will rub off the drop with the upper surface of the foot of the same leg. If this foot be cut off, it cannot thus act. "After some fruitless efforts, therefore, it gives up trying in that way, seems restless, as though, says Pfluger, it was seeking some other way, and at last it makes use of the foot of the other ...
— The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals • Charles Darwin

... to creep on the bottom. Then more brown objects, larvae of dragon-flies and water-beetles, detach themselves from the stems of the plants and cruise up and down seeking what they may devour. Other creatures feeding and swimming among or beneath the plants crawl out on to the upper surface, and the water-beetles come up to breathe, or to play upon the surface. One of the largest of these is a very fine black beetle, a vegetable-feeding creature. It is most interesting to see two of them—they generally live in pairs—browsing on one of the fern-like plants of the Thames. This plant ...
— The Naturalist on the Thames • C. J. Cornish

... portion of the Matterhorn which approaches such a condition is the shoulder, before alluded to, forming a step of about one twelfth the height of the whole peak, shown by light on its snowy side, or upper surface, in the right-hand figure of Plate 38. Allowing 4000 feet for the height of the peak, this step or shoulder will be between 300 and 400 feet in absolute height; and as it is not only perpendicular, ...
— Modern Painters, Volume IV (of V) • John Ruskin

... desired height, by this contrivance I make all the sensible rising and falling of the Mercury to be visible in the surface of the Mercury in the Pipe F, and scarce any in the head AB. But because there really is some small change of the upper surface also, I find by several Observations how much it rises in the Ball, and falls in the Pipe F, to make the distance between the two surfaces an inch greater then it was before; and the measure that it falls in the Pipe ...
— Micrographia • Robert Hooke

... palace still reveals in some of its rooms the environment of luxury and beauty in which the Minoan royalties lived. The Queen's Megaron may be taken as typical. A row of pillars rising from a low, continuous base divides the room into two parts. The upper surface of the base on either side of the pillars is of stucco moulded so as to form a long couch, which was doubtless covered with cushions when the room was in use. Light was furnished in the day-time, according to Cretan Palace practice, ...
— The Sea-Kings of Crete • James Baikie

... specimen of Sicilian or Southern Italian architecture. Perhaps the most remarkable touch of the South is seen in the low stone vaults which form the roofs of all the older houses of Capri, and whose upper surface serves as a terrace where the women gather in the sunshine in a way which brings home to one oddly the ...
— Stray Studies from England and Italy • John Richard Green

... rose the great gable end of the barn, and a long row of outhouses stretched away from it towards the left. The ground was strewn thick with chips; and the reason was not hard to find, for a little way off, under an old stunted apple-tree, lay a huge log, well chipped on the upper surface, with the axe resting against it; and close by were some sticks of wood both chopped and unchopped. To the right, the ground descended gently to a beautiful plane meadow, skirted on the hither side by a row ...
— The Wide, Wide World • Elizabeth Wetherell

... difficulty opened the heavy door. Inside there was a handsome ceiling, but little furniture. Most of the floor was occupied by a pile of thick circular blocks of stone, each of which had a single letter deeply cut on its slightly convex upper surface. 'What is the meaning ...
— Ghost Stories of an Antiquary - Part 2: More Ghost Stories • Montague Rhodes James

... be seen by reference to the design given in Fig. 486, taken from the upper surface of an ancient vase, that although the spirit of the decoration is wonderfully well preserved the idea of the origin of all the rays in the center of the vessel is not kept in view, and that by carelessness in the drawing two of the ...
— Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art. • William Henry Holmes

... dorsal exclusive of its last ray is of the same hue; a black band descends from it, and two from the second dorsal, which meet in a stripe that extends from the eye to the tail, the whole bearing some resemblance to the traces of a coach-horse. There is also a black mark on the upper surface of the tail, and a minute brownish speck on each scale, which specks form very faint rows on the cheeks and belly. The ground tint is pale or whitish, with some duskiness on the face, as if it had been coloured when recent. ...
— Discoveries in Australia, Volume 1. • J Lort Stokes

... utterly new to him, he glided away, like a snake; downward over crags and boulders, he knew not how long or how far; all he knew was, that he was going down, down, down, into a dim abyss. There was just light enough to discern the upper surface of a rock within arm's length; beyond that all was blank. He seemed to be hours descending; to be going down miles after miles: and still he reached no level spot. The mountain-side was too steep for him to stand upright, except at moments. It seemed one uniform quarry of smooth broken slate, ...
— Two Years Ago, Volume II. • Charles Kingsley

... transferred, by means of a fine camel's hair brush and white paint, to the tube itself. To draw off the water after taking a reading, a hole should be burnt with a hot wire through the bottom cork. This hole is plugged with a piece of slightly tapered brass rod, pushed in till its top is flush with the upper surface of ...
— Things To Make • Archibald Williams

... a lathe to hold your arrows in the painting process, you can employ two wooden blocks or rests, one having a shallow countersunk hole on its lateral face to hold the nock while rotating, the other having a groove on its upper surface. Clamp these on a bench, or on the opposite arms of your easy chair before the fire, and you can turn your shafts slowly by hand while you steady your brush and apply the ...
— Hunting with the Bow and Arrow • Saxton Pope

... light—and if his fancy can do as much as that, he can imagine to himself the stream up which we rode or walked, now winding along the narrow track a hundred feet or two above, looking down on the upper surface of the forest, on the crests of palms, and the broad sheets of the balisier copse, and often on the statelier fronds of true bananas, which had run wild along the stream-side, flowering and fruiting in the wilderness for the benefit of the parrots and agoutis; or on huge dark clumps ...
— At Last • Charles Kingsley

... invites insects to a fatal feast. It is a simple enough matter for them to walk into the pitcher over the band of stiff hairs pointing downward like the withes of a lobster pot, that form an inner covering, or to slip into the well if they attempt crawling over its polished upper surface. To fly upward in a perpendicular line, once their wings are wet, is additionally hopeless, because of the hairs that guard the mouth of the trap; and so, after vain attempts to fly or crawl out of the prison, they usually sink exhausted ...
— Wild Flowers Worth Knowing • Neltje Blanchan et al

... view of his friend's motives, as well as of Ethel's present feelings. If there had ever been any disappointment about Norman Ogilvie, it had long since faded away. She had never given away the depths of her heart, though the upper surface had been stirred. All had long subsided, and she could think freely of him as an agreeable cousin, in whose brilliant public career she should always be interested, without either a wish to partake it, or a sense of injury or neglect. She had her vocation, in her father, Margaret, the ...
— The Daisy Chain, or Aspirations • Charlotte Yonge

... distal end of the tube. Numerous perforations in the distal part of the tube allow air to enter from other bronchi when the tube-mouth is inserted into one whose aerating function may be impaired. The accessory tube on the upper surface of the bronchoscope ends within the lumen of the bronchoscope, and is used for the insufflation of oxygen or anesthetics, (Fig. 2, ...
— Bronchoscopy and Esophagoscopy - A Manual of Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery • Chevalier Jackson

... in this way. The height of the barometer is the perpendicular distance between the surface of the mercury in the cistern and the upper surface of the mercurial column. Now, when the barometer falls from 30 to 29 inches, an inch of mercury must flow out of the tube and pass into the cistern, thus raising the cistern level; and, on the other hand, when the barometer rises, mercury must flow out of the cistern into ...
— Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 3 - "Banks" to "Bassoon" • Various

... which, after being scarphed together, are bolted and clinched upon the upper side. In iron vessels the keel is formed of one or more plates of iron, having a concave curve, or limber channel, along its upper surface.—To give the keel, is to careen.—Keel formerly meant a vessel; so many "keels struck the sands." Also, a low flat-bottomed vessel used on the Tyne to carry coals (21 tons 4 cwt.) down from Newcastle ...
— The Sailor's Word-Book • William Henry Smyth

... long cart, drawn by powerful stallions, appeared a gigantic firmament in the shape of a hemisphere, on whose upper surface the sun, moon, and stars were seen shining in radiant light. The moon passed through all her changes, the sun and planets moved, and from the dome echoed songs and lute-playing, which were intended to represent the music of the spheres. Another chorus was heard from a basket of ...
— Uarda • Georg Ebers

... set near darker trees, and for this reason they are much desired by many planters. Bolle's poplar (Populus Bolleana of the nurseries) is one of the best of these trees. Its habit is something like that of the Lombardy. The upper surface of the deeply lobed leaves is dark dull green, while the under surface is almost snowy white. Such emphatic trees as this should generally be partially obscured by planting them amongst other trees, so that ...
— Manual of Gardening (Second Edition) • L. H. Bailey

... as dinner is over the pounding of the PADI begins (Frontispiece, Vol. II.). Each mortar usually consists of a massive log of timber roughly shaped, and having sunk in its upper surface, which is a little hollowed, a pit about five inches in diameter and nine inches in depth. Into this pit about a quarter of a bushel of PADI is put. Two women stand on the mortar facing one another on either side of the pit, each holding by the middle a large wooden pestle. ...
— The Pagan Tribes of Borneo • Charles Hose and William McDougall

... ready for the tip. They escaped with only wetting their feet, for they climbed upon the bottom of the upper surface as ...
— Dave Dashaway and his Hydroplane • Roy Rockwood

... sub-arctic regions is the pine grosbeak, which is often mistaken for the robin, for these two birds are nearly equal in size. The carmine colour of the upper surface of the male grosbeak distinguishes it from the grays and blacks of the upper part of the robin. The ...
— Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Nature Study • Ontario Ministry of Education

... called from the similarity of the larva of this sawfly to a small black slug. The worms feed on the upper surface of the leaves. Dust with quick lime two or three days in succession, or syringe with strong soap-suds and some tobacco water. Clean with pure water in a few days. The paraffin emulsion (No. 3) might also be used. ...
— The Book of Pears and Plums • Edward Bartrum

... until 4.35. At four, perhaps, they could begin; but even at four the winter twilight would be on them, and he had taken care to provide torches and distribute them among the crowd. His own men were making the most of the daylight left, drilling holes for dear life in the upper surface of the boulder, and fixing the Lewis-wedges and rings. They looked to him for every order, and he gave it in a clear, ringing voice which he knew must carry to the cliff top. He did not ...
— The Ship of Stars • Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch

... of ice was followed to the eastward for a distance of 250 miles. Its upper surface was seen to be perfectly flat. The most easterly point reached was long. 167deg. W., and the highest latitude 78deg. 4' S. No opening having been found, the ships returned to the west, in order to try once more whether there was any possibility of reaching the ...
— The South Pole, Volumes 1 and 2 • Roald Amundsen

... very differently constructed. No lens is used. The telescope tube is usually built in skeleton form, open at its upper end, and with a large concave mirror supported at its base. This mirror serves in place of a lens. Its upper surface is paraboloidal in shape, as a spherical surface will not unite in a sharp focus the rays coming from a distant object. The light passes through no glass—a great advantage, especially for photography, as the absorption in lenses cuts out much of the ...
— The New Heavens • George Ellery Hale

... only one so-called Danish monument has existed on Inchcolm, and is still to be seen there. It is a single recumbent block of stone above five feet long, about a foot broad, and one foot nine inches in depth, having a rude sculptured figure on its upper surface. In his History of Fife, published in 1710, Sir Robert Sibbald has both drawn and described it. "It is (says he) made like a coffin, and very fierce and grim faces are done on both the ends of it. Upon the middle stone which supports ...
— Archaeological Essays, Vol. 1 • James Y. Simpson

... feet high. These grow higher and higher still; the sand below is compressed by the weight above; water exercises its petrifying influence from the base upward, and from the centre outward, and more sand accumulates on the upper surface until they become actual hill ranges of a compact shale-like formation in horizontal strata, each stratum being slightly less hardened than the underlying, and each showing plainly defined the actions of water ...
— Across Coveted Lands - or a Journey from Flushing (Holland) to Calcutta Overland • Arnold Henry Savage Landor

... like a bladder. From the lower part of this depend into the water large and small nutritive branches, each ending in a mouth surrounded by a circle of waving tentacles armed with batteries of thread-cells, while another set of hanging protrusions bear the grape-like reproductive organs. On the upper surface of the bladder is fixed a purple sail of the most brilliant colour, by which the floating creature is blown through the water. When the weather is rough, the bladder empties, and the creature sinks down into ...
— Thomas Henry Huxley; A Sketch Of His Life And Work • P. Chalmers Mitchell

... of the lower surface, that part of the upper surface directly over it, together with the struts ...
— The Aeroplane Speaks - Fifth Edition • H. Barber

... observation with the barometer the instrument should be slightly tapped to free the mercury from any adhesion to the glass; any violent oscillation should, however, be carefully avoided. The vernier should then be adjusted to the upper surface of the mercury in the tube; for this purpose its back and front edges should be made to coincide, that is, the eye should be placed in exactly the same plane which passes through the edges; they should ...
— The Hurricane Guide - Being An Attempt To Connect The Rotary Gale Or Revolving - Storm With Atmospheric Waves. • William Radcliff Birt

... second larger plate C, also of conducting surface. The poised plate is surrounded by a detached guard ring—an annular or perforated plate, r g r' g'—exactly level and even with it as regards the upper surface. The inner plate is carried by a delicate balance. In use it is connected to one of the conductors and the lower plate to earth or to the other. The attraction between them is determined by weighing. By calculation the results can be made absolute, as they depend on actual ...
— The Standard Electrical Dictionary - A Popular Dictionary of Words and Terms Used in the Practice - of Electrical Engineering • T. O'Conor Slone

... The upper surface of the tell of the acropolis at Susa for a depth of nearly two metres contains remains of the buildings and antiquities of the Achaemenian kings and others of both later and earlier dates. In these upper strata of the mound are found remains of the Arab, Sassanian, Parthian, Seleucian, and ...
— History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, And Assyria In The Light Of Recent Discovery • L.W. King and H.R. Hall

... already said, was of the most brilliant colour. The whole of its upper surface was a golden green, vivid as the hues of an emerald; while its body underneath was greenish-white. But this part, as it lay along the liana, was not seen; and a pure, uniform green was the apparent colour of the whole animal. There was one conspicuous exception—the throat. This ...
— The Boy Hunters • Captain Mayne Reid

... the top of one of these rocky islets, across the tossing waters of the Gulf. Innumerable sea-fowl encircled the isolated spot and built their nests so densely upon the rocks as to cover the whole of the upper surface. At the base of one of these Bird Rocks Cartier stopped his ships in their westward course, and his men killed great numbers of the birds so easily that he declared he could have filled thirty boats with them in ...
— The Mariner of St. Malo: A Chronicle of the Voyages of Jacques Cartier • Stephen Leacock

... beds of all streams. All terrace walls are built of these undressed stones piled together without cement or earth. These walls are called "fa-ning'." They are from 1 to 20 and 30 feet high and from a foot to 18 inches wide at the top. The upper surface of the top layer of stones is quite flat and becomes the path among the sementeras. The toiler ascends and descends among the terraces on stone steps made by single rocks projecting from the outside of the wall at regular intervals ...
— The Bontoc Igorot • Albert Ernest Jenks

... before, only we concealed it by an upper surface of chatter,' said Maurice. '"As iron sharpeneth iron, so doth a man the countenance of his friend;" but if the mutual sharpening went on without intermission, both irons would wear away, and no work would be done. Aren't you coming with me? Edmund is going to drive me to Woodside to meet the pony-carriage ...
— The Young Step-Mother • Charlotte M. Yonge

... bird is only about six and a half inches long, partly owing to the very short tail, which does not surpass the somewhat square wings. The head, throat, and entire upper surface are of the richest glossy crimson red, shading to orange-crimson on the forehead, where the feathers extend beyond the nostrils more than half-way down the beak. The plumage is excessively brilliant, shining in certain lights with a ...
— The Malay Archipelago - Volume II. (of II.) • Alfred Russel Wallace

... serves to attract and retain insects, the decay of whose bodies seems to contribute to its existence." And the Dionaea, or Venus's Fly-trap of the Southern States, has some leaves which fold together upon any insect that alights upon their upper surface; and by means of a row of long spines that fringes the leaves, they prevent his escape. The more active the struggles of the captive, the closer grows the hold of the leaf, and speedily destroys him. The plant appears to derive nutriment from ...
— Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 4, No. 21, July, 1859 • Various

... condyles. If we were to try to complete the ball, of which they form a part, we should close up the great opening—the foramen magnum—which provides a passageway for the brain stem on its way to the spinal canal. All that is to be seen of the socket or cup is two hollows on the upper surface of the atlas into which the occipital condyles fit (Fig. 3, B). Merely two parts of the brim of the cup have been preserved to provide a socket for the condyles ...
— A Book of Exposition • Homer Heath Nugent

... to time it discharges. Figure 10, c, gives a somewhat magnified view of the pupa, and Figure 10, b, shows the last few joints of the abdomen of the larva, magnified and viewed from above. The vent of the larva, as will be seen from this last figure, is situated on the upper surface of the last joint, so that its excrement naturally falls upon its back, and by successive discharges is crowded forward toward its head, till the whole upper surface is covered with it. There are several other larva, feeding upon other ...
— The $100 Prize Essay on the Cultivation of the Potato; and How to Cook the Potato • D. H. Compton and Pierre Blot

... handle, and attempted to break down and widen the edges. Pushing, stamping, driving with his make-shift spade, now clutching at the edges with his fingers and loosening the stones, now forcing them in with his heel, he succeeded in working through the hard upper surface; then breathless, dizzy, spent, with hands that could scarce grasp the shovel, and stumbling feet that each moment threatened to fail him, he spaded out the softer earth below and scraped and tore at the sides, till the hole was wide enough to contain the cradle, ...
— A Loose End and Other Stories • S. Elizabeth Hall

... I have to direct attention is the Kallima paralekta, a butterfly of the same family group as our Purple Emperor, and of about the same size or larger. Its upper surface is of a rich purple, variously tinged with ash colour, and across the forewings there is a broad bar of deep orange, so that when on the wing it is very conspicuous. This species was not uncommon in dry woods and ...
— The Malay Archipelago - Volume I. (of II.) • Alfred Russel Wallace

... while she looked up to him with ever-increasing honour. She was better able to understand him now than in her more childish days last summer; and she did not merely see, as before, that she was looking at the upper surface of a mystery. He had, at the same time, grown in character, his excitability and over-sensitiveness seemed to have been smoothed away, and to have given place to a calmness of tone, that was by no ...
— The Heir of Redclyffe • Charlotte M. Yonge

... presence in the cells of minute green grains or granules, called chlorophyll, which means leaf-green, and these granules are indispensable to the carrying on of the important work which takes place in the leaves. They are more numerous and also packed more closely together near the upper surface of the leaf than they are near the lower. It is because of this that the upper surface is of a deeper ...
— Arbor Day Leaves • N.H. Egleston

... portion is gritty, being composed of comparatively coarse particles, which, owing to their size, shape and gravity, sink first and constitute the bottom of each layer. Gradually, from bottom to top the coarseness diminishes, and near the upper surface we have a layer of exceedingly fine grain. It is the fine mud thus consolidated from which are derived the German razor-stones, so much prized for the sharpening of ...
— Fragments of science, V. 1-2 • John Tyndall

... find one place, Frank, where there is any projection a fellow could stand upon, and that is only large enough for one. See!" he said, pointing to a projecting block of chalk, whose upper surface, some eight inches wide, was tolerably flat. "There is a cave here, too, which may go beyond the tide. It is not deep but it ...
— By Sheer Pluck - A Tale of the Ashanti War • G. A. Henty

... of a sphere as opposed to the outer or convex surface: concave veins are those that occupy the bottoms of troughs or grooves on the upper surface of a ...
— Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology • John. B. Smith

... fibrous cavities; the 'magnesian deposit of Vanuxem.' Of these, the third is the only one that has yielded gypsum in profitable quantities. The included masses of gypsum, though, for the most part, even-bedded at their base, are usually very irregular at their upper surface, often conical. The plaster beds are supposed to be separations by molecular attraction from ...
— Old Mackinaw - The Fortress of the Lakes and its Surroundings • W. P. Strickland

... I removed the chandelier from the plaster that supported it, I found, outside the upper surface of the metal box, a sealed envelope. As the chandelier was placed under the attic occupied by M. Fauville's son, it is evident that M. Fauville was able, by lifting the boards of the floor in his son's room, to reach the top of the machine which he had contrived. This was how, during that ...
— The Teeth of the Tiger • Maurice Leblanc

... fretful, exhausted. He was thin and pale; his eyes burned, and there were dark patches under the eyes; the discipline of the hair had been rather gravely neglected. In front of George lay a number of large plans, mounted on thick cardboard, whose upper surface had a slight convex curve. There were plans of the basement of the projected town hall, of the ground floor, of the building at a height of twelve feet from the ground, of the mezzanine floor, of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth ...
— The Roll-Call • Arnold Bennett

... Where the upper surface broke off, two gangs of men stood beside the tackles that trailed away from the foot of the derrick. The flame that leaped with a roar from a lamp on a tripod picked out some of the figures with harsh distinctness, but left the rest dim ...
— Brandon of the Engineers • Harold Bindloss

... an angle of forty-five degrees. This pedestal did duty for a neck; and upon it was placed a thing which, viewed as a whole, resembled a demijohn. The lower part was pillowed on the cylinder, no gleam of light ever penetrating between the two. Upon the upper surface, at a proper distance from the extremity, two lips appeared, very like two pieces of raw beefsteak picked ...
— Lands of the Slave and the Free - Cuba, The United States, and Canada • Henry A. Murray

... Herbert Pocket, who knows that one should not cut up all of his meat at the same time but mouthful by mouthful as he needs it, that it is not customary to butter a whole slice of bread at once nor to plaster cheese over the entire upper surface of a cracker, can by a dint of watching how other people do it find his way without embarrassment through even the most elaborate array of table implements. The easiest way to acquire good table manners (or good manners of any other kind, as far ...
— The Book of Business Etiquette • Nella Henney

... maize. Three classes, for convenience of description, may be distinguished, although certain characters are common to all and one form grades more or less completely into another. We have the plain slab or rudely hewn mass of rock, in the upper surface of which a shallow depression has been excavated; we have the carefully hewn oval slab supported by short legs of varied shape; and we have a large number of pieces elaborately sculptured in imitation of animal forms. The first ...
— Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui, Colombia • William Henry Holmes

... discovered by Mr. Edgar L. Layard, who has done me the honour to call it the Sciurus Tennentii. Its dimensions are large, measuring upwards of two feet from head to tail. It is distinguished from the S. macrurus by the predominant black colour of the upper surface of the body, with the exception of a rusty spot at ...
— Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon • J. Emerson Tennent

... but the upper surface that we shape into articulate thought; underneath the region of argument and conscious discourse lies the ...
— The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley Volume 1 • Leonard Huxley



Words linked to "Upper surface" :   ceiling, side



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